Source: SEAMEO BIOTROP's Research Grant | 2015
Disorders that frequently found in food and feed during storage is due to insect infestations. The most common method applied in warehouse management is the surface spraying and fumigation using phosphine fumigant. The use of phosphine as a fumigant for more than 60 years led the development of resistant strains to stored-product insects. Therefoe, alternative fumigant is needed to manage these resistant strains of stored-product insects. One potential alternative to replace the phosphine as a fumigant to be applied in food and feed warehouses is essential oils. The research aims: (1) to collect samples of stored-product insects from food and feed storages in West Java, DKI Jakarta and Banten and tested their resistance against phosphine, (2) to explore the potency of essential oils distilled from cinnamon, nutmeg, and cardamom as a fumigant against stored-product insects, and (3) to conduct a fractionation of effective essential oils and testing the active fraction: cloves and mint, against two categories of stored-product insects: phosphine resistant and non-resistant strains. This research was conducted through four stages of activities: (1) collecting stored-product insects from warehouses of food and feed in the provinces of DKI Jakarta, Banten and West Java, (2) testing the resistance level of those insects against phosphine, (3) exploring the potency of essential oils distilled from aromatic plants to be used as alternative to phosphine, (4) testing the effectiveness of essential oils against collected stored-product insects. The result showed that 5 of 6 samples of stored-product insects were known to be resistant against phosphine. Hexane fraction of clove oil was more effective against test insects compared to its crude oil. Essential oils of nutmeg, cardamom, and cinnamon were more effective against non-resistant T. castaneum compared to the resistant one. All of those three essential oils were effective against Callosobruchus maculatus with a dose of 0.065 mL / L fumigation chamber.