Source: SEAMEO BIOTROP's Research Grant | 2017
The case of insect pest insect resistance to phosphine has been widely developed in Indonesia. The use of essential oil-based fumigant as an alternative fumigant in controlling the insect pests resistant strain to phosphine has excellent potential to be developed. This study aims to: (1) collecting stored-product insect samples that suspected resistant to phosphine from food and feed storages in Bali, South Sulawesi and West Nusa Tenggara provinces to complete our database of phosphine resistant strains that we developed since 2011, (2) fractionating and testing effective essential oils from our previous studies: fennel and ginger oils against stored-product insects, (3) getting information about active compound of cardamom oils n-hexane fraction and cinnamon oils ethyl acetate fraction, (4) development simple fumigant formulation of clove, cardamom, and cinnamon oil. The results showed that 9 of 13 samples of Tribolium castaneum were resistant to phosphine. In addition, all samples of Rhyzopertha dominica and Cryptolestes sp. tested were also resistant to phosphine, whereas resistance cases were not found in all samples of Sitophilus sp. A simple fractionation of crude essential oil does not always have a positive effect on the effectiveness of essential oils in controlling T. castaneum. The most effective fumigant tablets containing fractionated essential oils in causing mortality on T. castaneum was the tablets contain a mixture of hexane fraction of cardamom oil with naphthalene and a mixture of hexane fraction of mint with naphthalene (1:1) with 7 day exposure time. Fumigant gel showing the highest reppelance level was hexane fraction of cardamom that contain 2 ml of essential oil in 30 g gel with the level of reppelance around 65%.