Screening of Toxigenic Aspergillus Flavus Strains and Aflatoxin Content From Agricultural Commodities in Indonesia

Source: SEAMEO BIOTROP's Research Grant | 2019


Infection of toxigenic A. flavus in agricultural commodities may result in production of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a mycotoxin which is genotoxic carcinogenic for humans and animals. The aims of this study were to screen toxigenic A. flavus strains and to determine AFB1 content of six agricultural commodities in Indonesia. A total of 50 A. flavus strains were obtained from Phytopathology Laboratory, SEAMEO BIOTROP. The strains were isolated from nutmeg, corn, cacao, white pepper, coffee bean, ground peanut and soil peanut farm. The toxigenicity of A. flavus were determined by growth simulation on agar medium (10% coconut agar medium) followed by observation of their fluorescence using 365 nm UV light. AFB and AFG toxin produced were quantified using HPLC. The results showed that 16% (8 strains) A. flavus were toxigenic, which derived from nutmeg (4 strains), ground peanut (2 strains), cacao (1 strain), and soil peanut field (1 strain). Five toxigenic strains produced AFB1 exceeding the Indonesian-regulatory maximum level (15 ug/kg). A. flavus from soil peanut field (BIO 3352) produced the highest AFB1 content (90.94 ug/kg), while the other from ground peanut (BIO 3313 and BIO 3338), nutmeg (BIO 33212), and cacao (BIO 33404) had AFB1 content of 70.26, 40.27, 84.24, and 69.06 ug/kg respectively. The producing aflatoxin capability of these strains can be potentially hazard if contaminated in agricultural commodities.

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