Source: SEAMEO BIOTROP's Research Grant | 2020
Eha (Castanopsis buruana Miq.) is one of important species from a total of 110 species from Castanopsis genus (Fagaceae) in the tropical Asia (LaFrankie Jr, 2010). This species is naturally grown in primary and secondary lowland forests up to 1,000 m asl (Lemmens et al. 1995) in Indonesia, such as in Maluku, Sulawesi and Kalimantan (Whitmore et al., 1989 dan Hildebrant, 1950). Tree height of this species is 20-30 m with trunk diameter of 10-30 cm (Lemmens et al.,1995). Wood quality of this species belongs to strong category of II-III and to durable category of III (Hildebrant, 1950). Due to its strength and durability characters, the wood of this species can be used as building and bridge materials (Lemmens et al., 1995).
Wood other, C. buruana trees C. buruana tree produces fruits that contain nuts and are edible, high nutritional value and gluten free (Purwaningsih dan Polosakan 2016 ). Local people of Wawonii, Konawe Islands Regency, Southeast Sulawesi Province usually roast eha fruits/seeds. The roasted fruits/seeds taste like roasted chestnut (Rahayu dan Rugayah 2007). In the eastern Kolaka, local people cook Eha seeds with brown sugar and coconut milk as dessert (personal communication). Based on the obervations of the proposing team, Eha fruits are consumed by monkeys and pigs. Eha fruits consists of 66,75% carbohydrate, 2,46% protein, and 0,34% fat ((Basrudin 2019). Eha fruits are also used for medicinal purposes, such as anemia, lost of appetite, prevent abnormalities in fetus, keep the balance of nervous system, and as milk alternative for lactose intolerant persons. Eha fruits has economic prospects to be cultivated in Sulawesi.
To support the development of Eha forest in Sulawesi, it is important to master the silviculture technique for conserving Eha. In general, Eha is propagated using its seeds (Husna et al. 2019; Basruddin 2019). The results showed that large seeds with IBA 50 ppm treatment can produce germination and maximum growth potential of C. buruana Miq seeds. respectively 83.33% and 88.89% (Basrudin et al. 2019; Husna et al. 2019). But now there has been an over-exploitation of these plants due to illegal logging, mining activities and plantation expansion, thus threatening the presence of these plants in an eha-style forest that does not bear fruit every year, the seeds are easily damaged and have a hard and thick seed coat with lignin content 16.61% and cellulose 59.78% so it takes a long time to germinate (Basrudin et al. 2019). Therefore, vegetative propagation of Eha tree is developed, using various methods such as cutting (shoots, stems and roots), grafting, and 2 plant tissue culture (Hartmann & Kester 1983). Several studies on vegetative propagation on Castanopsis were reported, such as shoot cutting (Fitria 2015) and in vitro propagation on Castanopsis argentea (Agustiani, 2016; Surya et al. 2017).
The objectives of this study are :
1. To assess the growth success of Eha natural seedlings using different treatments of media and seedlings height on without and with lid.
2. To assess the success germination of Eha seed with scarificition and soaking
3. To Assess the success of eha shoot cuttings
4. To Assess the success of eha stem cuttings and air layering affected by Rootone-F
The research conclusions are as follows:
1. Eha can be propagated generatively by using its seeds and uprooted natural saplings. The best survival and growth of uprooted natural saplings is observed to happen in covered condition and soil as growing media. There are no effect differences among height of uprooted natural saplings.
2. Filed and soaked seeds had higher germination percentage, germinating power and MDG compared to control.
3. Eha can be propagated vegatively using grafting, shoot cuttings and stem cuttings
techniques. Eha can be grafted in its shoots and branches parts. Among the three
techniques applied i.e., grafting, shoot cuttings and stem cuttings, there were no
differences in survival and growth among control and Rootone-F treatments.
However, in the grafting technique, the 200 ppm Rootone-F application showed
better survival and growth compared to control. In the shoot cuttings technique, the
150 ppm Rootone-F application showed better survival and growth compared to