Genetic Diversity and Structure Analysis of Sipunculan in Banda Naira
M. Krisanti, E. W. Erliani

Source: SEAMEO BIOTROP's Research Grant | 2020



The systematics of Sipunculan is complex, as it has been variously ranked at different taxonomic levels – family, order, class and phylum (Kawauchi et al 2012). Recent revisions have dramatically reduced the number of spesies because it has been shown that minor differences used to erect new spesies, actually only represented intraspesific variation (1994). Sipunculan look almost uniform, may looks the same but actually genetically different. Sipunculans are distributed throughout the world, information about distribution in Banda has never existed. This will be an important note about distribution. Genetic diversity is needed to determine the amount of genetic variation that exists. The magnitude of genetic diversity reflects the genetic resources needed in ecological adaptation and evolution (Lande and Shannon, 1996). The study of genetic diversity aims to determine genetic diversity by looking for whether genetic movements occur between populations, so that the population's life status can be determined (Santos et al 2010). Genetic diversity has significance in population stability and resilience (Ferguson et al 1995). According to Frakham et al (2010) loss of genetic diversity will reduce the ability of these species to adapt to environmental changes. 

Genetic diversity generally supports population resilience and persistence. Back a reduction in population size and the absence of gene flow can cause a reduction genetic diversity, reproductive fitness, and limited ability to adapt to the environment Tal changes increase the risk of extinction. The island population is usually small and isolated, and as a result, their genetic diversity and diminished diversity increase risk of extinction (Furlan et al 2011). The diversity of genes that exist in each individual in a population. It is a biological asset that is the main object to be exploited in accordance with the stated objectives (Hadie et al 2013). Molecular markers are very effective tools for the analysis of genetic diversity. One of the marker that is widely used is Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) (Welsh and McClelland, 1990; Williams et al 1990). RAPD is a PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) based marker using random primary polymers.

Sipunculan is an organism that is very potential to be developed in its use, especially in the Banda islands, sipunculan used as food, traditional medicine and fishing bait. Peanut worm, or Banda is better known as kariong which is one of the marine biota that looks like an earthworm with a larger body size. Sipunculans are sea worms, non-segmentation, bilateral symmetry, and have independent phylum status. This group is represented by around 150 species (Hyman, 1959). Then by Kozzlof (1990) the species that has been formally described is 300. Sipunculan is known to 2 have good nutritional content. According to Silahooy (2008) Sipuncula in Saparua Island, Central Maluku contains 3 essential fatty acids namely linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic; and non-essential fatty acids, namely myristic acid, palmitic acid, pentadecanoic and stearic acid. Silaban and Tupan (2016) that freshly useless sea worms from Nusalaut Island sea contain carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins A, B1, B6, B12 and E as well as minerals P, I2, Ca, Mg and a number of fatty acids. In its development, sipuncula has been used as a raw material for medicines. Zhang and Zi (2011) state that in South China, Sipunculan has long been used as a high nutritional food and is used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of tuberculosis, regulating the function of the stomach and spleen, and health recovery caused by pathogens. Purwaningsih (2014) that Siphonosoma australe extract has the potential as an anti-diabetes obtained through in vitro tests that can inhibit the activity of αglucosidase enzymes by 16-24 ppm.

Information of genetic diverstiy and structure analysis of sipunculan is not widely known and published in Indonesia. Research on this organism is still very rare. Salazar (2013) reports several factors lacking in the study of the sipunculan, which are poor records, complex anatomy and problems with their taxonomy. Therefore, this research is important to provide basic data for future research in taxonomy and genetics. The taxonomic status of the sipuncula can be explained by the existence of this study, these animals have specific characteristics that lead to new genera and species. Other benefits, it is also an alternative food in protein needs in Banda. Based on the results, the possible effects of life history, thus research can be used as preliminary data for further research to determine genetic variations, distribution and structure in appearance.


The purpose of this study was to :

1. A certain of distribution and diversity pattern

2. Identify functional group on intertidal

3. Describe the structure (types/genus, habit) of sipunculan found in Banda.

4. Determine the value of genetic variability of sipunculan in the Banda. 


• The spread pattern of Sipuncula in Banda Naira at Tanah Rata and Walang stations is random by testing the morista index.

• Base on morphological characteristic the genera found in Banda are from the Sipunculidea class, the Siphonosoma genus and the Thysanocardia genus. The morphological characteristics of the sipunculan are slightly different, so it is suspected that there are new species in Banda Naira.

• DNA analysis of 5 samples belong to Genus Sipunculus, species Sipunculus nudus with percentage 80%. Even though there were some trunk structure differences such as body length, introvert form and pattern, longitudinal muscle bands, nephridia which hang and attached to body wall, dorsal retractor muscle, and ventral retractor muscle. Thus the differences were compared with database thus it is suspected that there are unpublished new strain in Banda Naira. 

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