Source: SEAMEO BIOTROP's Research Grant | 2020
Ayam kampung (Gallus gallus domesticus) is one of the widest local chicken breeds in Indonesia. Generally can be found in regions with different climates and topography. It usually cared for by rural communities close to rice fields or forests. Ayam kampung have many advantages, including having a high adaptability to the environment genetically (Nangoy and Karisoh, 2018). Ayam kampungs also have the ability toresistant to disease, especially those caused by Salmonella sp infection (Ulupi et al. 2014). In addition, ayam kampung meat kept for 12 weeks with commercial feed contains cholesterol 59.65 mg/100 g (Sutama 2010). This is lower when compared to 6 week-old broiler chickens that produce meat with cholesterol levels of 63.72-87.21 mg / 100 g (Maraschielo et al. 2000).
The Directorate General of Animal Husbandry and Health of the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture (2018) reported that the population of local chickens (including ayam kampung) in Indonesia in 2017 was around 299.701.400. The number increased about 1.82% from 2016. On the other hand, the local chicken population is very low when compared to the population of broilers, where in the same year broilers numbered about 1. 848.731.364 and laying hens amounted to 176.936.928. As a result, consumption of ayam kampung is only able to contribute about 11.9% in national poultry meat consumption. This condition is very alarming if the government still considers chicken local only a complement in the poultry industry. The existence of ayam kampungs will be threatened with extinction if it continues to be consumed without any effort to increase population. So the effort to make local chicken as a strategic commodity for food security requires innovations in healthy, effective and inexpensive cultivation.
Many countries in Europe continue to develop innovation and technology, including in supporting the principle of animal welfare. The enactment of the prohibition of conventional housing (cage) is based on public concern about the welfare of chickens. Cages are only allowed as nests, perches, dust baths and facilities that can improve the natural behavior (Wall and Tauson 2002). The free range system was developed as an alternative to cultivation to address the large consumer demand for natural products (organic poultry) and free from antibiotic residues. Free range system is a maintenance system by spitting a chicken in the pasture land. The maintenance environment must be 2 stress free, not dense, get natural feed from seeds and insects and get plenty of fresh air and sunlight (Miao et al. 2005).
The high conversion of agricultural land in Indonesia to residential land, industry, property and commercial roads will pose a threat to the livestock business. BPS data (2018) shows that over the past five years, the area of paddy fields has continued to decline. At least there has been a decrease in rice fields area by 12.41% during 2014-2018. The area of paddy fields in 2014 was 8.111.593 Ha and in 2018 it was 7.105.145 Ha. The increasingly limited mineral land will force farmers to be able to farming on marginal land, including on peatlands. Indonesia has the largest area of peat in the tropical zone. It is estimated that it reaches 21 million Ha or represents 70% of the peat area in Southeast Asia and 50% of the world's tropical peatlands (Wibowo 2009). Riau Province has an area of 4 044 million ha or equivalent to 45% of the land area of Riau Province and 56% of the area of peatlands on the island of Sumatra (Wahyuni 2013).
Peatland in secondary forest is peat forest land that has undergone logging or forest fire, so that the potential is decreasing and has shown a difference with the natural forest type before. Usually peat forests that have been under pressure have very little vegetation potential (Rochamayanto et al. 2010). Rosanti (2013) reports that the dominant vegetation growing on peatlands are pakis udang (Stenochlaena palutris), rumput teki (Cyperus 3 rotundus) and seduduk (Melastoma malabathricum) with a density of 36.72% respectively; 45.31% and 17.97%.
Vegetation used in free range maintenance systems is obtained from grass or legumes that grow wild. However, given the level of succession and regeneration of vegetation on peatlands is limited, where the vegetation cover is only about 30-40%. So planting on peatlands by selecting suitable vegetation types and having high nutritional content needs to be done. Among the vegetation which is high in nutrients is Indigofera zollingeriana, where the shoots contain 28.98% crude protein, 3.30% crude fat, 8.49% crude fiber, 0.52% calcium and 0.34% phosphorus content (Palupi et al , 2014)
Therefore, the introduction of high nutrient vegetation studies on peatlands as a strategy to develop chickens kampung needs to be carried out for food security from animal and to play a role in restoring peat ecosystems without damaging the future.
This study aims to :
(1) Evaluate the potential of peatland ecosystems for kampung chicken development in terms of land limiting factors and livestock capacity.
Reviewing and analyzing the free range system introduced with Indigofera zollingeriana
plants in producing physiological conditions, performance and quality of kampung chicken