Source: SEAMEO BIOTROP's Research Grant | 2012
Abstract:The objectives of the research were (a) to investigate the effect of three types of packaging materials on the quality of sorghum grains, in terms of the moisture contents, percentage of damaged grains, population growths of Sitophilus zeamais and Fusarium spp.; fumonisin B1 and carbohydrate contents; and percentage of weight loss; (b) to obtain information on the best type of packaging material to ensure the quality of sorghum grains during storage. The variety of sorghum used in this study was Numbu. Sorghum grains with 13% of moisture content were packed in three bag types, i.e. (a) hermetic plastic bag SEMAR, (b) ordinary plastic bag and (c) polypropylene bag. Each bag per type of packaging material contained 5 kg of sorghum grains. Each bag per type of packaging material has been treated as follows: (a) introduction of ten pairs of adult (1-14 days old) Sitophilus zeamais and (b) different storage durations. Sorghum grains were stored for one, two and three months under warehouse conditions. Three replicates were used for each treatment combination. The data were analyzed using Completely Randomized Factorial Design with three factors, i.e. the type of packaging material, introduce and not introduced with S. zeamais, and duration of storage, respectively. The results showed, that the moisture contents of sorghum with various treatments were still lower than safe moisture content of sorghum to be stored (< 14%). The effect of interaction between type of packaging material and insect introduction on the percentage of damaged grains was found in sorghum packed in polypropylene bag. The percentage of damaged grains in every treatment combination increased during storage. Damaged grains of sorghum packed in polypropylene bag introduced with insect was higher and significantly different with that sorghum not introduced with insect. Damaged grains of sorghum packed in hermetic plastic bag SEMAR increased and was significantly different after two months of storage, while sorghum packed in ordinary plastic and polypropylene bags increased and significantly different after one month of storage. Population growth of Sitophilus zeamais can be suppressed when sorghum packed in hermetic plastic bag SEMAR. Population of Fusarium proliferatum in sorghum packed in hermetic plastic bag SEMAR was relatively constant during storage, while the population in sorghum packed in ordinary plastic and polypropylene bags decreased. After three months of storage, the lowest population of F. proliferatum was found in sorghum packed in ordinary plastic bag, while the highest population was found in sorghum packed in hermetic plastic bag SEMAR. Fumonisin B1 content of sorghum increased during storage. After one month of storage fumonisin B1 of sorghum increased and gave significant differences. Insect introduction gave significantly different on carbohydrate content of sorghum in polypropylene bag. The effect of type of packaging material and insect introduction on the percentage of weight loss of sorghum was found in sorghum packed in polypropylene bag after two and three months of storage. The percentage of weight loss of sorghum introduced with insect and packed in polypropylene bag after two and three months of storage were higher and significantly different with sorghum not introduced with insect. In term of S. zeamais infestation, hermetic plastic bag SEMAR is the best type of packaging material for storing sorghum grain. Ordinary plastic bag can be used for storing sorghum up to two months, while hermetic plastic bag SEMAR can be used up to three months of storage.
Keyword : sorghum quality, types of packaging materials.
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