Source: SEAMEO BIOTROP's Research Grant | 2021
Urban pests such as ants and cockroaches are two types of insects that are well adapted to human life and often cause disturbances to human comfort and health. The method of controlling ants and cockroaches using the safest insecticide (against building occupants) is baiting. This study aims to inventory the types of ants commonly found in Bogor and evaluate the effectiveness of bait combinations with botanical insecticide extract against cockroaches and ants. The results of the inventory and identification obtained 7532 individual ants from 4 subfamilies, namely Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, and Ponerinae, as well as 28 species. The diversity of ant species at each location shows that the ant species in the bus terminal environment are not significantly different from the mall area. However, the diversity of ant species in three locations, namely bus terminals, malls, and housing estates, showed significant differences with the diversity of ant species in office habitats. The study of seasonal differences did not show any effect on the diversity of ant species in each location. In the bait preference test, the cockroach Blattella germanica and the ant Anoplolepis gracilipes showed different preferences for the type of bait tested. The B. germanica cockroach showed a high preference for the combination of ground chicken meat + 25% sugar solution (1:1). In addition, the A. gracilipes ants preferred carbohydrate (sugar) and lipid-based baits, where the highest preference was found in 25% sugar solution baits followed by a combination of sugar + chicken fat solution (1:1). The LC50 and LC95 values of the Tephrosia vogelii extract against the third instar German cockroach were 0.023% and 0.058%, respectively. Meanwhile, the toxicity of Cerbera manghas extract was lower than that of T. vogelii against the third instar of German cockroach. The LC50 and LC95 values of C. manghas extract against the third instar of German cockroach were 0.027% and 0.073%, respectively. The addition of extracts of T. vogelii and C. manghas to the bait indicated a potential repellent effect by both types of insects.
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